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​Turkmenistan

Abstract

Turkmenistan is the second largest state in Central Asia, after Kazakhstan, and the most southern out of five Republics of the region. The country is bordered by Kazakhstan in the northwest, Uzbekistan in the north and east, Afghanistan in south-east, Iran in the south as well as the Caspian Sea in the west. The area of Turkmenistan is 491,200 square kilometers.

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Turkmenistan is the second largest state in Central Asia, after Kazakhstan, and the most southern out of five Republics of the region. The country is bordered by Kazakhstan in the northwest, Uzbekistan in the north and east, Afghanistan in south-east, Iran in the south as well as the Caspian Sea in the west. The area of Turkmenistan is 491,200 square kilometers. Most of its arid land is not good for animals and plant. Except oases located on narrow strips at the foot of Kopetdag Mountain and along Amudaria, Murgab and Tejen rivers, the rest of the territory is a desert. The great Cara-Cum canal of 1300 km long had affected the whole economic and social development of Turkmenistan for the last fifty years. This canal, supplied by natural flow without using pumping, was renamed as Cara-Cum river. Oil deposits and related oil industries are concentrated in Caspian plain in the east of the country and in the Caspian coast line to the west of Cheleken peninsula. Turkmen oil is of high quality both as a fuel and raw material for chemical industry. A pipeline network links oil deposits in the west of Turkmenistan toAshkhabad, Turkmenbashi (Krasnovodsk), Cheleken as well as to central and northern regions of the country. In the perspective territories of the Central and Eastern Turkmenistan a rich oil deposits and the oilextracted from there along with condensate of the gas are refined at the Refining Plant of Seidy city which is located in the middle part of Amuderiya oasis. The extracted oil and gas condensate of Turkmenistan have one of the top ranges in the form of fuel oil, as well as raw material for its processing. The network of the natural gas pipelines has been developed enough and now covered the demand of the Turkmenistan’s population by gas. Moreover, the transcontinental Central Asia Centre Gas Pipeline, which has been laid from the territory Eastern and Western Turkmenistan, will stimulate the prospecting development of the huge hydro-carbon reserves. Turkmenistan’s land as well as sea mineral wealth contain the huge reserves of natural gas, oil, iodine,bromine, sulphur, potassium and different mineral salts.

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