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Kazakhstan

Abstract

The Republic of Kazakhstan is bounded on the northwest and north by Russia, on the east by China, and on the south by Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and the Aral Sea; the Caspian Sea bounds Kazakhstan to the southwest. Kazakhstan's 2,717,600 square kilometers make it by far the largest state in Central Asia and the ninth largest in the world.

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The Republic of Kazakhstan is bounded on the northwest and north by Russia, on the east by China, and on the south by Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and the Aral Sea; the Caspian Sea bounds Kazakhstan to the southwest. Kazakhstan's 2,717,600 square kilometers make it by far the largest state in Central Asia and the ninth largest in the world.
Kazakhstan's great mineral resources and arable lands have long aroused the envy of outsiders. Among the most important minerals are copper in the central areas and in Aqtebe (Aktyubinsk) province; lead, zinc, and silver in the Rudnyy Altai area and the Dzungarian Alatau and Qaratau (Karatau) spurs; tungsten and tin in the Kolbin Ridge and southern Altai; chromites, nickel, and cobalt in the Mugozhar Hills; titanium, manganese, and antimony in the central regions; vanadium in the south; and gold in the north and east. In 1993 Kazakhstan finalized a contract with the Chevron Corporation to exploit the reserves of the Tengiz oil field, one of the world's largest. In the mid-1990s agreements also were sought with foreign investors for the development of oil and natural gas from the Tengiz, Zhusan, Temir, and Karachaganak wells. The profitability of such ventures rested principally on the establishment of new pipelines.

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