Republic of Tajikistan lies in the heart of Central Asia and is bordered by Kyrgyzstan on the north, China on the east, Afghanistan on the south, and Uzbekistan on the west and northwest. The territory of the country is 143,100 square km. Tajikistan encompasses the smallest amount of land among the five Central Asian States, but in terms of elevation it surpasses them all, enclosing more and higher mountains than any other country in the region.
Tajikistan possesses rich mineral deposits. Important metallic ores are silver, iron, lead, zinc, antimony, mercury, gold, tin, and tungsten. Non-metallic minerals include common salt, carbonates, quartz sand and precious and semi-precious stones. Energy resources include sizeable coal deposits and smaller reserves of natural gas and petroleum. The hydro-power is significant. Mountain rivers allow at a relatively low cost to build and operate medium and large size hydro-power stations which could meet the energy requirements not only of Tajikistan but also most of the ECO region.